Copyright (C) 1989-1992, Digital Equipment Corporation       
 All rights reserved.                                         
 See the file COPYRIGHT for a full description.               
 Last modified on Fri May 17 22:06:53 PDT 1996 by mhb             
      modified on Wed Jun 16 10:20:38 PDT 1993 by meehan          
      modified on Fri Mar 20 22:34:09 1992 by steveg          
      modified on Fri Feb 8 15:36:58 PST 1991 by brooks       
      modified on Wed May 17 17:06:31 PDT 1989 by gidi        
A textport is a VBT that allows the user to type and edit text.

The methods and procedures in this interface fall into several categories, each dealing with different aspects of the text-editor.


\item[Appearance] The client can choose the font, colors, margins, and whether long lines should be clipped or wrapped. The fonts and colors can be changed dynamically.

\item[Access to the text] There are procedures to read and write subsequences of the text, to read and set the current ``type-in'' point (cursor position), to get the length of the text, and to make the text read-only.

\item[Keybindings and Text-Selections] A textport is initialized with a {\em model}, an object (defined in the TextPortClass interface) that establishes the connection between keystrokes and editing operations, and the connection between mouse-gestures, the cursor position, local selections (including highlighted regions), and global selections such as the ``clipboard'' (VBT.Source). Four such models are implemented---Emacs, Ivy, Xterm, and Mac---corresponding to different editing paradigms. The choice of model can be changed dynamically. The client may override the filter method to intercept keystrokes.

\item[Feedback] A textport has callback-methods that are invoked when the text changes, when the user types Return or Tab, when the textport gains or loses the keyboard focus, when the visible region changes, and when errors are detected. All these methods have defaults.


The locking level for all procedures is LL <= VBT.mu except as noted.


IMPORT Font, PaintOp, VBT, VText;

  T <: Public;
  Public = VBT.Leaf OBJECT
             init (hMargin, vMargin := 0.5;
                   font             := Font.BuiltIn;
                   colorScheme: PaintOp.ColorScheme := NIL;
                   wrap                             := TRUE;
                   readOnly                         := FALSE;
                   turnMargin                       := 0.5;
                   model := Model.Default): T;

             <* LL.sup = VBT.mu *>
             filter         (cd: VBT.KeyRec);
             getFont        (): Font.T;
             setFont        (font: Font.T);
             getColorScheme (): PaintOp.ColorScheme;
             setColorScheme (c: PaintOp.ColorScheme);
             getModel       (): SpecificModel;
             setModel       (model: Model);
             getReadOnly    (): BOOLEAN;
             setReadOnly    (flag: BOOLEAN);

             (* callbacks *)
             modified     ();
             returnAction (READONLY cd: VBT.KeyRec);
             tabAction    (READONLY cd: VBT.KeyRec);
             focus (gaining: BOOLEAN; time: VBT.TimeStamp);
             error        (msg: TEXT);

The call v.init(...) initializes v as a TextPort.T and returns it.

The parameters hMargin and vMargin indicate how much whitespace to leave around the text, expressed in millimeters.

colorScheme is used for painting the text. If the parameter is NIL, then PaintOp.bgFg will be used.

If wrap is TRUE, then text will be wrapped across line boundaries; otherwise it will be clipped. If it is wrapped, then turnMargin specifies the width (in millimeters) of the gray bar placed at the end of the first line and the beginning of the second, indicating that the text has been wrapped.

If readOnly is TRUE, then the text cannot be changed through the user interface (keyboard and mouse). The procedures Replace, Insert, SetText, and PutText bypass the read-only protection, but these are not called by internal routines. In all other descriptions in this interface, the words {\it replace}, {\it insert}, {\it delete}, and so on should be understood as having the restriction that v is not read-only.

If model is Model.Default, then the default model (see below) will be used.

v.getModel() returns the name of the current model; note that the return value cannot be Model.Default. The call v.setModel(...) changes the current model; its parameter may be Model.Default, in which case the default model (see below) will be used.

The call v.setFont(font) changes the font used for displaying the text.

The call v.setColorScheme(c) changes the colors used for displaying the text.

The implementation calls v.focus(gaining, time) whenever v gains or loses the keyboard focus. If gaining is TRUE, then v is about to gain the keyboard focus (and time is a valid event-time); i.e., this method is called {\em before} the selection feedback is established, so it is reasonable to call Select (below) or put up some other indication. If gaining is FALSE, then v has just lost the keyboard focus (and time is {\em not} valid), so it reasonable to take down whatever indicated that the focus had been acquired. It is not within the power of the focus method to prevent v from gaining or losing the focus. The default for this method is a no-op.

The implementation calls v.error(msg) whenever an exception is raised for which there is no particular remedy, such as an Rd.Failure. The value of msg will be a short description of the error, typically the name of the procedure where the exception was raised. No method or procedure defined in this interface raises exceptions, but the client may wish to override this method in order to report the error in a popup window, for example. The default for this method is a procedure that tests whether the environment-variable named TEXTPORTDEBUG\index{TEXTPORTDEBUG} is set (to any value); if so, it writes the message to Stdio.stderr.

\subsubsection{Access to the text}

The textport's initial read-only status depends on the readOnly parameter to the init method. The getReadOnly method returns it; the setReadOnly method sets it.

PROCEDURE GetText (v    : T;
                   begin: CARDINAL := 0;
                   end  : CARDINAL := LAST (CARDINAL)): TEXT;
<* LL.sup = VBT.mu *>
Returns a sub-sequence of the text in v. The result will be empty if
      begin >= Length(v)
Otherwise the range of indexes of the subsequence is
      [begin .. MIN (end, Length (v)) - 1]

PROCEDURE SetText (v: T; t: TEXT);
Replace the current contents of v with t. This procedure does not test the read-only status of v.

PROCEDURE PutText (v: T; t: TEXT);
Append t to the current contents of v. This procedure does not test the read-only status of v.

PROCEDURE Replace (v: T; begin, end: CARDINAL; newText: TEXT);
Replace the text between positions begin and end in v with newText. If begin and end are beyond the end of the text, they are taken to refer to the end of the text. This procedure does not test the read-only status of v.

PROCEDURE Insert (v: T; text: TEXT);
If there is a replace-mode selection (see Section~\ref{ReplaceMode}, page~\pageref{ReplaceMode}), replace it with text; otherwise insert text at the type-in point. In either case, this is a no-op if text is the empty string. This procedure does not test the read-only status of v.

Return the current ``type-in'' position.

Set the ``type-in'' position to n.

Return the number of characters in v's text.

PROCEDURE Newline (v: T);
Insert a newline character at the type-in point.

PROCEDURE NewlineAndIndent (v: T);
Insert a newline character and enough spaces to match the indentation of the previous line. As it leaves a blank line, it will delete all spaces from that line so as to leave it truly empty.

Test whether the character at position pos is visible.
 \subsubsection {Models}\index{Model} 

  Model = {Default, Ivy, Emacs, Mac, Xterm};
  SpecificModel = [Model.Ivy .. Model.Xterm];

   DefaultModel: SpecificModel;
The default editing model, DefaultModel, is initialized to the environment variable named TEXTPORTMODEL;\index{TEXTPORTMODEL} if that variable is not set, or set to something other than emacs, ivy, mac, or xterm at startup time, then Model.Emacs will be used. See the EmacsModel, IvyModel, XtermModel, and MacModel interfaces in Appendices \ref{EmacsModel}--\ref{XtermModel} for details on keybindings, mouse-clicks, and selections.

PROCEDURE ChangeAllTextPorts (v: VBT.T; newModel := Model.Default);
For each textport p that is a descendent of VBT v, call p.setModel(newModel).
 \subsubsection {Keybindings}\label{TextPortKeybindings}

The TextPort interface allows clients a great deal of flexibility in handling keystrokes. v.key(cd) proceeds in three steps:

In step 1, it tests whether cd.wentDown is true, whether v has the keyboard focus, and whether v's domain is non-empty. If all three conditions are true, it proceeds to step 2.

In step 2, it passes cd to the model's keyfilter object, which handles low-level tasks such as converting ``Escape + character'' into ``meta-character'' (in Emacs mode), 8-bit ``compose character'' operations, and so on. The model may actually contain a {\em chain} of keyfilters (see the KeyFilter interface), each implementing some translation.

In step 3, the model passes cd (possibly changed by the keyfilters) to the textport's filter method. Clients who wish to intercept keystrokes usually do so at this point, by overriding the filter method, rather than by overriding the key method, so that they can take advantage of the low-level conversions.

In the default filter method, there are several mutually exclusive possibilities, tested in this order:


\item{If the key is Return, then if the shift modifier is on, we insert a newline; if the option modifier is on, we insert a newline but leave the cursor in place; otherwise, we invoke v.returnAction(cd), another callback method. Its default method calls NewlineAndIndent(v, cd).}

\item{If the key is Tab, we invoke v.tabAction(cd). The default method inserts 4 spaces.}

\item{If the key is an ``arrow'' key, we call the model's arrowKey method, which moves the cursor one character forward, one character backward, one line up, or one line down, as appropriate.}

\item{If the control modifier is on, we call the model's controlChord method.}

\item{If the option modifier is on, we call the model's optionChord method.}

\item{If the key is Backspace or Delete, we delete the previous character, or the current primary selection, if that is non-empty and in replace-mode.}

\item{If the key is an ISO Latin-1 graphic character, we insert it into the text.}

\item{Otherwise, we ignore it.}


Finally, we call Normalize(v), except in the controlChord and optionChord cases.

Clients can specialize the handling of keys, therefore, by overriding the textport's key, filter, returnAction, or tabAction methods, and by overriding the model's controlChord, optionChord, or arrowKey methods.

The following procedures give the client access to the keyboard focus:

PROCEDURE TryFocus (v: T; t: VBT.TimeStamp): BOOLEAN;
Try to acquire the keyboard focus and the primary selection, and report whether it succeeded.

PROCEDURE HasFocus (v: T): BOOLEAN; <* LL.sup = VBT.mu *>
Test whether v has the keyboard focus.

With various keyboard and mouse-gestures, the user may delimit a range of text, known as a {\em local selection}. The TextPort interface defines two local selections, called {\em primary} and {\em secondary}. The mechanism for doing this depends entirely on the textport's model. (In fact, only the Ivy model implements secondary selection.) The type-in point is always at one end or the other of the primary selection.

Primary selections in non-readonly textports may be in {\em replace mode}, also called {\em pending-delete mode}. This means that any text that is inserted will replace the primary selection, and that the Backspace and Delete keys will delete it.

Independent of the local selections are the two {\em global selections} defined by Trestle: VBT.Source and VBT.Target. On X window systems, these are defined by the X server, and are shared across applications. The Source selection, for example, is effectively the ``clipboard.'' Globals selections are ``owned'' by one program at a time; in Trestle programs, they are owned by one VBT at a time. While every textport may have a primary and secondary local selection, at most one can own Source, and at most one can own Target. The {\em contents} of a global selection are controlled by its owner.

The correspondence between local and global selections also depends entirely on the model. Every model implements an operation called {\bf Copy}\index{Copy}, which is defined as follows: the textport acquires ownership of Source, and copies the Primary selection so that it is the contents of Source.

Some models establish an {\em alias}\index{alias} between a local and a global selection, which means that when that textport owns the global selection, the contents of the global selection are {\em identical with} the contents of the local selection.

In the Ivy model, for example, Primary is an alias for Target, and Secondary is an alias for Source. In the Xterm model, Primary is an alias for Source. The other models do not use aliasing at all; they implement {\bf Copy} by making a separate copy of the local selection. In those models, the contents of the global selection are not visible; i.e., they are not displayed in the textport.

Local selections are usually highlighted in some way. The highlighting obeys the following conventions, applied in this order:


\item A replace-mode Primary selection is highlighted with black text on a light red background. (On monochrome screens, it is highlighted with ``inverse video'': white text on a dark background.)

\item If a Source selection is visible (i.e., if it is aliased with a local selection), it is highlighted with a thin, green underline. (On monochrome screens, it is a thin, black underline.)

\item A Primary selection that is neither a replace-mode selection nor a Source selection (e.g., a selection in the Emacs model), is underlined with a thick line. On color screens, there is a further distinction: in a read-only text, the underline is blue; otherwise, the underline is red.


A selection is represented by a pair of inclusive indexes (begin and end) into the text. The current selection-indices can be retrieved via the GetSelection procedure.

TYPE SelectionType = {Primary, Secondary};

PROCEDURE Select (v    : T;
                  time : VBT.TimeStamp;
                  begin: CARDINAL        := 0;
                  end  : CARDINAL        := LAST (CARDINAL);
                  sel         := SelectionType.Primary;
                  replaceMode := FALSE;
                  caretEnd    := VText.WhichEnd.Right   );
Make a selection in v, at event-time time. If begin and/or end are beyond the end of the text, they will be clipped to the end of the text. Acquire ownership of the corresponding VBT.Selection; if sel is SelectionType.Primary, acquire ownership of the keyboard focus as well.

The parameters replaceMode and caretEnd are relevant only if the value of sel is SelectionType.Primary. If replaceMode is TRUE and the entire selection is writable, then Insert and VBT.Write will {\em replace} the selected text; otherwise, they cause the new text to be {\em inserted} at whichever end of the primary selection is specified by caretEnd.

PROCEDURE IsReplaceMode (v: T): BOOLEAN;
Return TRUE if the primary selection is in replace mode.



PROCEDURE GetSelection (v: T; sel := SelectionType.Primary):
Return the extent of the most recent selection in v. If there is no such selection, return NotFound.

PROCEDURE GetSelectedText (v: T; sel := SelectionType.Primary):
<* LL.sup = VBT.mu *>
Return the text of the most recent selection in v if there is one, or the empty string otherwise.

PROCEDURE PutSelectedText (v: T;
                           t: TEXT;
                           sel := SelectionType.Primary);
<* LL.sup = VBT.mu *>
Replace the text of the most recent selection in v, if there is one, with t. If there is no such selection, this is a no-op.

A textport maintains a ``modified'' flag. Any operation that changes the text will cause this flag to be set to TRUE. If it was previously FALSE, then the implementation calls v.modified() {\it after} the change has already happened to v. The default is a no-op. The IsModified and SetModified procedures set and test this flag, respectively.

Return the value of the ``modified'' flag for v. Any change to the text will cause the flag to be set to TRUE.

PROCEDURE SetModified (v: T; value: BOOLEAN);
Set the value of the ``modified'' flag for v. This will not invoke v.modified, even if value is TRUE.
 A textport also maintains a scrollbar (optional).  See the
   TextEditVBT interface in Section~\ref{TextEditVBTSection}. 

PROCEDURE Normalize (v: T; to := -1);
Scroll v if necessary to ensure that position to is visible. If to < 0, it refers to the current type-in point. If to is larger than the length of the text, normalizes to the end of the text.
 \subsubsection{Direct access to the text} 

PROCEDURE GetVText (v: T): VText.T;
For wizards only: extract the underlying VText. It is legal to create and manipulate highlighting intervals on it. It is legal to run readers on it, provided you can be sure that you are locking out concurrent change (for example, by holding VBT.mu). It is not legal to modify it directly. It is not legal to scroll it directly either, because that will leave the scrollbar incorrect.

END TextPort.